Minggu, Desember 19, 2010

Tempeh... One of Indonesia's Food

The origin

Tempe whitish color due to fungal hyphae that attach soybean seeds.

Unlike other traditional soy foods are usually from China or Japan, tempeh from Indonesia.  It is unclear when the manufacture of tempeh begins. However, this traditional food has been known since many centuries ago, especially in order to eat the Javanese culture, particularly in Yogyakarta and Surakarta. In chapter 3 and chapter 12 manuscripts Fiber Centhini with Java setting of the 16th century (Fiber Centhini itself is written in the early 19th century) had found the word "tempe", for example by mentioning the name of dishes Jae Santen tempeh (a type of cuisine tempeh with coconut milk) and Kadhele Srundengan Tempeh. This and other available historical records indicate that it may at first be produced from soybean tempe black, came from traditional rural society might Java-developed in the area of Mataram, Central Java, and developed before the 16th century.

The word "tempe" probably derived from the ancient Javanese language. In the days of ancient Javanese have a white food made from corn starch called tumpi. Tempe fresh white that also appear to have similarities with those tumpi food. 

In addition there are references about tempeh than in 1875 in a Javanese-Dutch dictionary. Other sources say that the manufacture of tempeh begins during the era of Forced Planted in Java. At that time, the Javanese people are forced to use the yard, such as cassava , yams and soy, as a food source. In addition, there are also opinions that say that tempeh may be introduced by the Chinese people who produce the food type, ie koji1 fermented soybeans using Aspergillus.  Furthermore, the technique of making tempeh spread throughout Indonesia, in line with the spread of Javanese society migrate to all parts of the country. 

Tempe in Indonesia
Fried Tempe

Indonesia is the country's largest soybean producer in the world and become the largest soybean market in Asia. Some 50% of Indonesian soy consumption takes the form of tempeh, 40% knew, and 10% in other products (such as tauco, soy sauce, etc.). Tempe consumption average per person per year in Indonesia is currently expected around 6.45 kg. 

At the time of Japanese occupation in Indonesia, the prisoners of war who were fed tempeh spared from dysentery and malnutrition.  A number of studies published in the 1940s until the 1960s also concluded that many prisoners survived World War II because of Tempe .  According to Onghokham, protein-rich tempeh has saved the health of Indonesia's population is dense and relatively low income. 

However, the name of 'tempeh' never used in the urban areas of Java, especially Central Java, to refer to something that is of poor quality. Terms like 'mental tempe' or 'tempeh class' is used to denigrate the sense that it was talking about poor quality because it is cheap like tempeh.  Sukarno, Indonesia's first president, often warned the Indonesian people by saying, "Do not become a nation of Tempe."  Only in the mid-1960s this view began to change about tempeh.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s there have been numerous changes in the manufacture of tempeh in Indonesia.  Plastic (polyethylene) began to replace banana leaves to wrap tempe, yeast-based flour (produced from 1976 by Indonesian Institute of Sciences and is widely used by Producers Cooperative Tempe Tofu Indonesia, Kopti  began to replace traditional laru, and soybean imports began to displace local soybean. Tempeh production increased and the industry began to be modernized in the 1980s, partly thanks to the participation of Kopti who stood on March 11, 1979 in Jakarta and in 1983 had consisted of more than 28,000 manufacturers of tempeh and tofu.

Technical standards for tempeh has been established in the Indonesian National Standards and the prevailing since October 9, 2009 is ISO 3144:2009. In these standards, soy tempeh is defined as "products obtained from fermented soy beans by using Rhizopus sp., Compact solid-shaped, white, slightly grayish and tempeh distinctive smell." 

Tempe Outside of Indonesia

Tempe is known by the people of Europe through the Dutch people. In 1895, Prinsen Geerlings (chemistry and microbiology experts from the Netherlands) conducted the first attempt to identify the tempeh mold.  tempeh companies in Europe first started in the Netherlands by immigrants from Indonesia.

Through The Netherlands, Tempe has been popular in Europe since 1946. Meanwhile, Tempe popular in the United States after the first made there in 1958 by Yap Bwee Hwa, an Indonesian who first conduct scientific research on tempeh.  In Japan, Tempe studied since 1926 but only began to be produced commercially around 1983.  In 1984 already 18 companies listed in Europe Tempe, 53 in America, and 8 in Japan. In some other countries, such as the People's Republic of China, India, Taiwan, Sri Lanka, Canada, Australia, Latin America, and Africa, tempeh is becoming known in limited circles. 

Pak Rustono factory, an Indonesian tempeh king in Japan.

Travel in the cool autumn air to the mountains of Katsuragawa, located about 30 kilometers from Kyoto is a journey that presents the natural beauty of Japan. Winding uphill road Momiji decorated trees whose leaves start turning red bright along the road. The fog covering the tops of mountains and pine forest and ends up in a green valley. Japanese traditional thatched house still looks thick here and there with a typical garden as if united with nature. That was my initial encounter with Rustono (41), the King of Tempe, as the Japanese call friends.

Packaging weighing 200 grams with label Rusto's Tempeh pictorial illustration village life in Java atmosphere scattered in various supermarkets in Japan. A traditional Japanese house, cultural heritage which has been two centuries old, is where I met Rustono agreement. When the legs begin to move into the wooden gate in a fenced yard bamboo, soprano sax sound blast that hummed the song "Going Home" from Kenny G. Apparently the king was busy singing a song full of longing that immerses it by sitting on a big rock in the middle of the park under the shade of a tree Momiji, ditingkah splashing sound crystal clear river that divides the village, accompanied by his wife at his side.
The spirit of longing"The village is the birthplace of the page always brings longing," Rustono explained when asked about his favorite song was. "And singing with a blast of sax sound is the rhythm of the soul most deeply," he added.

Longing for homeland in a small town Grobogan, far in the hinterland of Central Java with the expanse of rice fields and teak forests, apparently still bothered Rustono despite being 13 years he lived in Japan.

For those who graduated from the Academy of Hospitality Rustono Sahid (entry 1987), it is not a nuanced melancholy longing protracted, but carriers of the spirit of life path decisions.

In 1997, after six years of working in the Hotel Sahid Yogyakarta, changes in the way of life began to show its direction. When a group of Japanese tourists visiting Yogyakarta, an angel of the State of the Rising Sun, Tsuruko Kuzumoto, a tall, slim fair-complexioned Rustono fascinate. And apparently she was not unrequited. That year also went Rustono catch up to Japan and begin his new life in Kyoto.

Various job he ever did. From working in the company until the company's bread vegetables. There Rustono many Japanese employees noticed the work ethic. In addition to full responsibility, they also attempted to reach the target and to participate in maintaining the production quality. Even the Japanese government is very careful to periodically check the quality of the production, review the company, until notice of cleanliness of the room, including equipment and desk work.

According to observations Rustono, food is the most basic needs of human life. That is why all forms of food produced in Japan and the industry is very advanced. Rustono conceived in the mind, why not try to open a food business that does not exist in Japan. His inspiration came after knowing nato, compatriots from soy foods that taste is very typical for Japanese tongue.

Be he tried to make tempeh with little knowledge he had ever known. For four months he was struggling trying to make tempeh, with yeast from the Indonesian and Japanese soybeans, but always failed. Until then using the water from the fountain at the residence-in-law, he managed to make tempeh.

The long journey

The road to business success that he traveled very long and steep. Although successful in the experiment to make tempeh, he was not sure was right. Surely it's not just because it uses the original water from springs directly.

After her first child, Noemi Kuzumoto, aged three years, with the permission of his wife Rustono back to Indonesia for three months to learn to make tempeh tempeh to 60 crafters all over Java.

Some crafters do exist that are not entirely giving the secret manufacture of tempeh, but many things he could absorb from the experience of crafters tempeh in Central Java. For example, why can better feel the savory tempeh, how the results tempe is wrapped with bamboo leaves or banana leaves, or with plastic, and how it can produce good tempe fermentation.

Which is then no less heavy is licensed production in Japan. He has to go through research and testing in the laboratory, must meet the ability to be responsible for the quality and content of production material in accordance with the one shown on the packaging that the nutrient content of soybean tempeh and nutritional equivalent of meat, including compliance with packaging recycling.

Constraints can also be severe enough that he's going through is about to face the natural climate in Japan. Tempe fermentation can only be successful in 60 percent humidity weather to 90 percent, which of course is not a problem in Indonesia. In Japan, which has four seasons, has the required air humidity Tempe only in summer. However, through a little research and painstaking, the results are very large. He can regulate humidity in all seasons in the production room.

Production equipment also results Rustono own innovation. Soybean washers he modification of the former squid washing machine that he can from fishing companies. Similarly, for the packaging, she brought homemade machine Bantul and Surabaya.

The King of Tempe

Although this is only a joke nickname his colleagues, it did nothing wrong. Now the production capacity Rustono every five days could reach 16,000 tempeh wrap with packing 200 grams. To support the production, he entered into contracts with soybean farmers in Nagahama, Shiga region.

It started from small-scale businesses with the marketing from door to door. He wakes up his own production house without builder's architectural and without thinking, but only with intuition intuition similar artists. And of home-based business that now Rustono to achieve better development in the region tempe factory-eyed forest edge of water, on land 1,000 square meters.


In Japan already many books about tempeh peel. Among the most famous being The Book of Tempeh, writing Shurtleft William and Akiko Aoujaga. This large book complete with descriptions and illustrations of interesting about the making and the benefits of tempeh with the cultural background of Indonesia, especially Java.

There are also books published by the Association of Tempe in Japan run by the professors and nutritionists. This association held a research and each year hold a seminar on tempeh. One of the study is the nutrient content of tempeh is not less than beef.

They introduced the tempeh with the motto "good food is not necessarily healthy, delicious food can not nourish. However, the food is delicious and healthful tempeh! "Terberitakan also a cosmetics company producing beauty with mushroom fermented tempeh into the capsule that supposedly can smooth the skin.

Problem of patents that were once a gossip in our country that Japan claimed Tempe, Rustono explained, "Ah, that's a misunderstanding. How can we patent the tempeh until everyone in America knows tempeh is a food native to Indonesia. Whether Japan will also be patented sashimi or sushi? They just patented a processed burger, not tempenya. "

He was not wearing employee but worked tempenya production business with his family.

Sabtu, Desember 04, 2010

Zayed National Museum in Abu Dhabi, one of the museum's environmentally friendly!

This building is a museum on Saadiyat Island, Abu Dhabi is known as the Zayed National Museum.
Besides the architecture of this building itself resembles a bird or insect wings, the building was also an environmentally friendly building for trying to save electricity by using a system called Thermal Chimney.
Use of this system will automatically reduce the heat that comes into the building and means will be able to save the use of refrigeration (AC).
Thermal Chimney itself is a natural system that resemble the shape of a chimney that will save / capture the hot air and release it back outside so that the building is not too hot.The museum is still under construction has a total of approximately 66,042 m2 and will be filled with a variety of things ranging from galleries, restaurants and more.

For Pic 

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